Efflorescence occurs when salt is dissolved in water and transported to the surface of the concrete.  The salt comes from a range of sources including the water, concrete, soil, etc.  There are many methods to removing efflorescence and all depend on the surrounding conditions.  Cleaning methods include using a dry brush to remove it, mild cleaning agents and water, power washing and efflorescence cleaners.  Once cleaned a concrete sealer such as US SPEC Hydrasheen could be applied to prevent it from reoccurring. 

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